If I understand correctly, you are looking for information on the different macronutrient ratios one need to consume when doing physically demanding exercise as oppose to normal daily activities OR are you looking for info on the amount of calories you need to consume to maintain your body weight when doing physical exercise...or maybe both?
If you are wanting info on the macronutrient ratio for women doing aerobic endurance exercise then the amount of protein consumed should range from 1.2 to 1.6 grams/kg body wt/day. Fats (eg lenoleic and alpha-lenoleic acid) should comprise about 25 to 30% of total energy intake and with carbs making up the rest.
If you want to know how much calories to consume on a daily basis to maintain your body weight then this involves calculating your Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TEE) ( the total amount of calories you expend in one day) which involves using the Cunningham Equation. There is a bit of work involved in this but it is quite accurate. A less accurate but useful alternative is to use the calculator at http://www.health-calc.com/diet/ener...iture-advanced
The only problem with this calculator is that it doesn't take into account the Thermic Effect of Food which refers to the amount of calories that it takes for the body to digest, absorb, and metabolize the food you ingest and this also contributes to the TEE.
If you want to know how to use the Cunningham equation, let me know as I will need to send it over via email attachment since there are tables which may not format correctly when copying and pasting.
What is also important to know when you go hiking is to Carb Load with certain sports drinks. This will prevent muscle glycogen stores from becoming depleted. Here are a few things to keep in mind though. If you exercise in the fasted state (let's say you skipped breakfast) then women (as opposed to men) tend to oxidize fat for fuel to a greater degree than carbohydrates. Also, compared to men, women will oxidize fats more than carbs or protein if they exercise at 75% VO2max (moderate intensity). If however, you ate a carbohydrate breakfast (eg oatmeal) then you tend to oxidize more carbohydrates and consuming carbohydrate as you exercise becomes important as your muscle glycogen reserves are limited and they become depleted over time. When this happens, fatigue and exercise performance declines so when you consume liquid carbs during exercise this will be oxidized in preference instead of your glycogen reserves found in exercising muscles. Normally, hiking for up to 60 minutes will have little impact on glycogen reserves however longer duration exercise will start depleting these reserves.
Hiking 1 to 2 hours consume 30 grams of carbohydrate per hour of single transportable carb (eg dextrose, highly branched cyclic dextrin). If hiking 2 to 3 hours consume 60 g carb/hour of single or multiple transportable carb. If hiking for greater than 2.5 hours consume 90 g carb/hour of only multiple transportable carb. When you consume a single transportable carbohydrate, oxidation rate of carb is limited however consuming multiple transportable carbs will increase carbohydrate oxidation and delay muscle fatigue. Cytomax drink contains crystalline fructose and dextrose (2 different carbohydrates) and they are absorbed at different rates.
After you stop hiking you need to carb load to replace the depleted muscle glycogen stores especially if you didn't consume much carbohydrates during the hike. If you are on a day hike, it isn't a problem but on a backpack it is difficult to increase glycogen synthesis fast enough to replace those lost in the exercising muscle. If you look at husky dogs, they have very fast rates of glycogen synthesis and can replenish lost stores within 24 hours however in humans this is more difficult but one can use the general formula: 10g carb/kg body wt/24 hours. Normally high glycemic carbs are absorbed faster than complex carbs however complex carbs are healthier (eg brown rice, sweet potato). If I do a day hike, what I usually do right after I finish hiking is consume a carbohydrate/protein drink to increase both glycogen and protein synthesis.
I've been experimenting a lot with different liquid carbohydrates and they work well to delay muscle fatigue during exercise however I don't like the fact that they are high glycemic because spiking glucose and insulin over time can eventually increase the risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Now that I am more concerned about my health, I searched all over to find a low glycemic carb. Well, you can buy sweet potato powder or oat powder but they usually taste like crap so I plan to go with a high glycemic carb like Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin and reduce the rise in glucose and insulin by including some PGX powder (polyglycoplex) since I read a clinical study which showed that it can reduce the post-prandial rise in glucose. It is best to avoid maltodextrin as a carbohydrate and they are found in a lot of sports drinks since it is cheap. They are also found in many food products as a bulking agent but this stuff can increase the risk and aggravate existing inflammatory bowel disease like Crohns and Ulcerative colitis since it is broken down in the large intestine and forms a biofilm which bacteria can adhere to the intestinal wall.
Say Ashi, non-glucose sugars like maltodextrin can cause false positive readings with some glucometers such that blood sugar readings may show high where in fact you may be hypoglycemic. The clinical study didn't state which glucometers but I know a lot of sport gels and chews contain maltodextrin.